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Ruthenium Anode

Ruthenium-Iridium coated Titanium Anodes are made from two core components: a base and a coating.

The coating is similar to a varnish, although quite different in composition and application method and its purpose is to allow the electrochemical reactions. It needs a support which supplies it with the necessary mechanical structure which constitutes the electrode. Ruthenium coated Titanium Anodes are generally immediately available in most volumes and can be made in forms such as sheet, mesh, perforated plate, rod, or wire.

Ruthenium-Iridium coated Titanium Anodes
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Ruthenium used in the manufacture of anodes employed in the electrolytic production of chlorine. These are titanium anodes, coated with ruthenium oxide or, occasionally, a platinum–iridium alloy, more recently an iridium–ruthenium alloy.


Anodes with mixed metal oxide (MMO) coating mostly consist of the base material titanium or niobium onto which precious metal oxides of the platinum metals group with other valve metals are applied. Usually iridium mixed oxide coatings are used for chloride-free electrolytes, whereas ruthenium or iridium/ruthenium mixed oxide coatings are used for the production of chlorine and hypochlorite. Ruthenium Oxide coated Titanium Anodes are used in electroplating, water treatment, and other electronic applications.


Coating are two main anodic reaction families and they are:

The production of Chlorine (Cl2) from solutions containing Chlorides (Cl-) according to the electrochemical reaction:

Cl- + e- —-> Cl2

The production of Oxygen (O2) from acid solutions containing mainly Nitrates, Sulphates according to the electrochemical reaction:

2H2O —-> O2 + 2e- + 2H+


The coating is very thin layer, typically just a few microns, made of noble metal oxides part of the Platinum family, that covers the titanium’s surface where the anodic reaction takes place. We use primarily Ruthenium and Iridium, mixed, depending on the application, with other metals from the same family: Palladium, Rhodium, Platinum.

Titanium family’s oxides are part of the coating’s formula as well: Titanium, Tantalum, Niobium. They serve the purpose to make the structure more compact and adherent to the Titanium base and at the same time provide a protective function against the aggressiveness of some solutions the electrodes need to work in.

The formation of the coating takes place through the application of a solution of the above elements and a subsequent high temperature thermal treatment to create the oxide. Each application or “coat” is a cycle during which a fraction of the coating’s quantity settles. The number of cycles is subject to the final noble metal’s load, which, in turn, is in relation to the type of application it is designed for.


Application:

Caustic soda production, use diaphragm process to produce alkali, chlorate industry, organic synthesis, sodium hypochlorite production, sea water electrolysis, electrowinning nonferrous metal, produce chlorine by electrolysis, metal plating., ect.


TNTI produce Ruthenium coated Titanium Anodes in high purity forms and follows applicable ASTM testing standards; a range of grades are available including  ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade, Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade.


Properties:

High anti-erosion, High current efficiency, long service life, light,  floor can be recycled after electrodes lose activity

We can also produce materials to custom specifications by request, in addition to custom compositions for commercial and research applications and new proprietary technologies.


Contact us and we can discuss your specific application with you. We will gladly assist you.

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