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Guide to Titanium
Following is an overview of the frequently encountered titanium alloys and pure grades, their properties, benefits, and industry applications. The various Titanium Grades as defined by ASTM and ASME are numbered from 1 and upwards where all numbers except 6 and 8 are represented.
Alloy Composition
(ASTM Grade)
[Common Name]
Alloy Description Available Product Forms Typical Applications
Commercially Pure (Unalloyed) Ti Grades
Ti Grade 1 Lower strength, softest, unalloyed Ti grade with highest ductility, cold formability, and impact toughness, with excellent resistance to mildly reducing to highly oxidizing media with or without chlorides and high weldability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, CG, CP, DS, HE, HR, FP, MI, PB, NS
Ti Grade 2 Moderate strength unalloyed Ti with excellent weldability, cold formability, and fabricability; "workhorse" and "garden variety" Ti grade for industrial service with excellent resistance to mildly reducing to highly oxidizing media with or without chlorides. Approved for sour service use under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Seamless Tubing*, Wire*, Foil* AC, AD, AP, AR, CG, CP, DS, FP, HE HR, MI, NS, PB, PP, OP, SR
Ti Grade 3 Slightly stronger version of Gr. 2 Ti with similar corrosion resistance with good weldability and reasonable cold formability/ductility. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe CP, NS, PP
Ti Grade 4 Much stronger, high interstitial version of Grades 2 and 3 Ti with reasonable weldability, and reduced ductility and cold-formability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip AC, AD, CP
Commercially Pure Grades Modified with Pd or Ru

Ti-0.20Pd [Ti-Pd]

(Grade 7)

Most resistant Ti alloy to corrosion in reducing acids and localized attack in hot halide media, with physical, mechanical, formability properties equivalent to Gr. 2 Ti, and excellent weldability/fabricability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, AP, CP, DS, HE, PB
Ti-0.15Pd
(Grade 11)
Most resistant Ti alloy to corrosion in reducing acids and localized attack in hot halide media, with physical, mechanical, formability properties equivalent to Gr. 1 Ti (soft grade) and excellent weldability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, CP, DS, HE, HR, PB
Ti-0.05Pd (Grade 16) Lower cost, leaner Pd version of Ti Gr. 7 with equivalent physical/mechanical properties, and similar corrosion resistance. Tubing, Welded Pipe Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, AP, CP, DS, HE, HR, PB
Ti-0.05Pd (Grade 17) Lower cost, leaner Pd version of Ti Gr. 11 with equivalent physical/mechanical properties and fabricability (soft grade) and similar corrosion resistance. Tubing, Welded Pipe Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, CP, DS, HE, HR, PB

Ti-0.1Ru [TiRu-26]

(Grade 26)

Lower cost, Ru-containing alternative for Ti Gr. 7 with equivalent physical/mechanical properties and fabricability and similar corrosion resistance. Tubing, Welded Pipe Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe, Wire* AC, CP, DS, HE, HR, PB

Ti-0.1Ru [TiRu-27]

(Grade 27)

Lower cost, Ru-containing alternative for Ti Gr. 11 with equivalent physical/mechanical properties (soft grade) and fabricability and similar corrosion resistance. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Welded Pipe AC, CP, DS, HE, HR, PB
Alpha and Near-Alpha Alloys

Ti-0.3Mo-0.8Ni

[Ti-12]

(Grade 12)

Highly weldable and fabricable Ti alloy offering improved strength and pressure code design allowables, hot brine crevice corrosion, and reducing acid resistance compared to Ti Grades 1, 2, and 3. Approved for sour service use under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Billet, Welded Pipe, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Seamless Pipe, Wire* CP, DS, GB, HE, HR, OP

Ti-3Al-2.5V

[Ti-3-2.5]

(Grade 9)

Medium strength, non-ageable Ti alloy offering highest strength and design allowables under the pressure vessel code, with good weldability and cold fabricability for mildly reducing to mildly oxidizing media. Ingot/Bloom, Billet, Welded Pipe, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Foil* Seamless Tubing*, Wire* AD, CG, NS, SR

Ti-3Al-2.5V-Pd

[Ti-3-2.5-Pd]

(Grade 18)

Pd-enhanced version of Ti-3Al-2.5V with equivalent physical and mechanical properties and fabricability, offering elevated resistance to dilute reducing acids and crevice corrosion in hot halide (brine) media. Ingot/Bloom, Billet, Welded Pipe, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Seamless Pipe CP, GB, HE, OP, PD

Ti-3Al-2.5V-Ru

[Ti-3-2.5-Ru]

(Grade 28)

Ru-enhanced version of Ti-3Al-2.5V with equivalent physical and mechanical properties and fabricability, offering elevated resistance to dilute reducing acids and crevice corrosion in hot halide (brine) media. Approved for sour service use under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Billet, Welded Pipe, Plate, Strip, Welded Tubing, Seamless Pipe, Wire* CP, GB, HE, OP, PD

Ti-5Al-2.5Sn

[Ti-5-2.5]

(Grade 6)

Weldable, non-ageable, high-strength alloy offering good high temperature stability, strength, oxidation and creep resistance. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Sheet GT

Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI

[Ti-5-2.5 ELI]

Extra low interstitial version of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibiting an excellent combination of toughness and strength at cryogenic temperatures; suited for cryogenic vessels for service as low as -255ÂC. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet SS

Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V

[Ti-8-1-1]

Highly creep-resistant, non-ageable, weldable, high-strength Ti alloy for use up to 455ÂC; exhibiting the lowest density and highest modulus of all commercial Ti alloys. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Sheet GT

Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si

[Ti-6-2-4-2-S]

Weldable, high strength Ti alloy offering excellent strength, stability, and creep resistance to temperatures as high as 550ÂC. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Sheet AF, AU, GT
Alph-Beta Alloys

Ti-6Al-4V

[Ti-6-4]

(Grade 5)

Heat treatable, high-strength, most commercially available Ti alloy ("workhorse" alloy for aerospace applications), for use up to 400ÂC offering an excellent combination of high strength, toughness, and ductility along with good weldability and fabricability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet, Seamless Pipe, Wire*, Seamless Tubing*, Foil* AD, AF, AU, BA, CG, GT, HE, LG, NS, PD, SR, SS

Ti-6Al-4V ELI

[Ti-6-4 ELI]

(Grade 23)

Extra low interstitial version of Ti-6Al-4V offering improved ductility and fracture toughness in air and saltwater environments, along with excellent toughness, strength, and ductility in cryogenic service as low as -255ÂC. Typically used in a non-aged condition for maximum toughness. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet, Wire*, Seamless Tubing*, Foil* AF, MI, BA, NS, OP, SS

Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru

[Ti-6-4-Ru]

(Grade 29)

Extra low interstitial, Ru-containing version of Ti-6Al-4V offering improved fracture toughness in air, seawater, and brines, along with resistance to localized corrosion in sweet and sour acidic brines as high as 330ÂC. Approved for sour service use under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet, Seamless Pipe, Wire* CP, DS, GB, OP, PD
Ti-6Al-7Nb High strength Ti alloy with good toughness and ductility, used primarily for medical implants stemming from its excellent biocompatibility. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Wire* MI

Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

[Ti-6-6-2]

Heat-treatable, high-strength Ti alloy with higher strength and section hardenability than Ti-6Al-4V, but with lower toughness and ductility, and limited weldability. Can be used in mill annealed or in the aged (very high strength) condition. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet AF

Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

[Ti-6-2-4-6]

Heat-treatable, deep-hardenable, very high strength Ti alloy with improved strength to temperatures as high as 450ÂC, with limited weldability. Approved for sour service under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet GT

Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn-0.5Si

[Ti-550]

Heat-treatable, high strength forging alloy with good strength and creep resistance to temperatures as high as 400ÂC. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet GT

Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr-0.15Si

[Ti-6-22-22]

Heat-treatable, high strength Ti alloy with strength and fracture toughness-to-strength properties superior to those of Ti-6Al-4V, with excellent superplastic formability and thermal stability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet, Wire* AF, SS

Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Mo-2Fe

[SP-700]

Heat-treatable, high strength Ti alloy with superior strength and exceptional hot and superplastic formability compared to Ti-6Al-4V, combined with good ductility and fatigue resistance. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Plate, Sheet AF, CG, GT, SR, SS

Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr

[Ti-17]

Heat-treatable, deep section hardenable, very high strength Ti alloy with superior strength and creep resistance over Ti-6Al-4V to temperatures as high as 400ÂC, and limited weldability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet GT
Near-Beta and Beta Alloys
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al [Ti-10-2-3] Heat-treatable, deep hardenable, very high strength Ti alloy possessing superior fatigue and strength/toughness combinations, with exceptional hot-die forgeability, but limited weldability. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet AF, LG
Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo [Ti Beta-C] (Grade 19) A heat-treatable, deep section hardenable, very high strength Ti alloy possessing good toughness/strength properties, low elastic modulus and elevated resistance to stress and localized corrosion in high temperature sweet and sour brines. Approved for sour service under the NACE MR-01-75 Standard. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Seamless Pipe, Wire* GB, LG, NS, PD, SS
Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr- 4Mo-0.05Pd [Ti Beta-C/Pd] (Grade 20) A Pd-containing version of the Ti-38644 alloy (Beta-C/Pd) possessing equivalent physical/mechanical properties, but with significantly enhanced resistance to stress and localized corrosion in high temperature brines. Ingot/Bloom, Bar*, Billet, Seamless Pipe GB, NS, PD


Legend for Typical Applications
AC Anode/cathode/cell components GT Gas turbine engine components
AD Aircraft ducting, hydraulic, tubing, misc. HE Hydrometallurgical extraction/electrowinning
AF Airframe components HR Hydrocarbon refining/processing
AP Air pollution control equipment LG Landing gear components
AR Architectural, roofing MI Medical implants/devices, surgical instruments
AU Automotive components NS Navy ship components
BA Ballistic armor OP Offshore hydrocarbon production/drilling
CG Consumer products (watches, eye glass frames, etc.) PB Pulp/paper bleaching/washing equipment
CP Chemical processing equipment PD Hydrocarbon production/drilling
DS Desalination, brine concentration/evaporation PP Power plant cooling system components
FP Food processing/pharmaceutical SR Sports/recreational equipment
GB Geothermal brine energy extraction SS Space vehicles/structures, missile components
Most of the grades are of titanium alloy type with various additions of for example aluminium, vanadium, nickel, ruthenium, molybdenum, chromium or zirconium for the purpose of improving and/or combining various mechanical characteristics, heat resistance, conductivity, microstructure, creep, ductility, corrosion resistance etc. Etc.
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